The process of extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth
- Mining of stone and metals existed in pre-historical times.
- Ancient Egyptians mined malachite and used it for pottery and ornaments.
- Romans popularized large-scale mining and the use of water to clean mineheads.
- Canada is one of the largest mining nations in the world, producing more than 60 minerals and metals.
- Canada ranks first in the world for the production of potash and uranium.
- US has the world's largest reserve of coal that is sufficient for about 200 years.
- Coal generates half of US's electricity needs.
- Gold legally became money in China in 1091 BC.
- Uranium mining has exposed more workers to radiation than any other industry.